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Permafrost describes soils that are frozen throughout the subsoil. They influence our climate, because higher temperatures cause the soil to thaw and because of biological degradation carbon dioxide and methane gas are released and enter the atmosphere. Bacteria, yeasts and algae live in permafrost. They have adapted to the cold in many different ways, e.g. by reducing their metabolic activity, protective proteins or by living in a community with other organisms.
Explanation for children:
Permafrost describes soils that are completely frozen underground. If it is very warm for a very long time, permafrost soils can melt. Among other things, certain bacteria, yeasts and algae live in permafrost. They have adapted to the cold in many different ways.